Venus verrucosa

Linné, 1758

Description (shell):
Shell oval, tumid, rugose. Sculpture of numerous prominent, concentric ridges; prodissoconch with distinct radiating ridges, early stages appearing decussate, but only posteriorly in later stages where radiating grooves disrupt concentric sculpture, giving rise to erect warty knobs. Growth stages indistinct. Lunule deeply impressed, oval, with fine striations, deep brown or chestnut; escutcheon elongate, unequally developed; prominent on left valve, broad, smooth, and crossed by irregular bands of deep brown, largely obscured on right valve by shell sculpture. Three cardinal teeth in each valve, with a small lateral tooth in front of anterior cardinal of left valve, and a corresponding pit in right. Posterior adductor scar often tinted pinkish brown, chestnut, or light purple. Pallial line faint, sinus small and triangular, extending no further forward than inner edge of posterior adductor scar. Inner shell margin very finely crenulate (V. verrucosa).

Up to 60 mm in diameter.

Off-white to light brown, darkest about umbones and anterio-dorsal margin, periostracum deeper brown. Inner surfaces white and very glossy.

The foot is large and tongue-shaped, adapted in burrowing. The siphons are unequal, cylindrical, relatively short and united, save at the tips.

From lower shore to about 100 m, in sand and gravel.

Predominantly southern distribution, only in the southern North Sea, ranges south to the Mediterranean, West and South Africa (Distr. V. verrucosa).